mihan-tec - melanin


تلاش برای فردای بهتر




نوشته شده توسط:amin saadat

                                      Melanin theory

Melanin theory is a non-sensepseudoscientific theory, founded in the distortion of known physical properties of

melanin, a natural polymer and organic semiconductor.The theory wrongfully posits the inherent superiority of

black people and the essential inhumanity and inferiority of white people. It is partially a discredited form of black

supremacist theory.

Some black supremacists justify supremacist assertions by assigning dubious properties to melanin based on

pseudoscience and distortions of scientific fact or speculation. The theory is false and has absolutely no scientific grounds.

                                       Melanin theory

Melanin theory is a non-sensepseudoscientific theory, founded in the distortion of known physical properties of

melanin, a natural polymer and organic semiconductor.The theory wrongfully posits the inherent superiority of

black people and the essential inhumanity and inferiority of white people. It is partially a discredited form of black

supremacist theory.

Some black supremacists justify supremacist assertions by assigning dubious properties to melanin based on

pseudoscience and distortions of scientific fact or speculation. The theory is false and has absolutely no scientific


Science and the melanin theory                                                                            

Extrapolating from known scientific properties of melanin, adherents of melanin theory claim the substance bestows

upon people of color superhuman abilities, with some contending that melanin is a superconductor. It is, in fact,

a semiconductor. Some assert that it can absorb electromagnetic radiation; others that it can convert light and

magnetic fields to sound; that it can process information without reporting to the brain; and, further, that it is

the chemical basis for what is commonly called "soul".Of course, such claims are completely fictitious and

unfounded in science.

It is also claimed that, because neuromelanin, which is found in the substantia nigra (in Latin, literally "black

substance") of the human brain, plays a role in the transmission of neuronal impulses, higher levels of melanin in

skin enable nerve synapses to fire more quickly and efficiently as well, thereby enhancing the natural athleticism of

dark skinned people. However, no direct correlation between skin color and the level of melanin in the substantia

nigra has been observed. There is, however, a correlation between cutaneous melanin and the substantia nigra

vis-a-vis Parkinson's disease, a neurological disease condition in which there is a loss of melanin-pigmented cells of

the substantia nigra. Blacks have a significantly lower incidence of Parkinson's than whites, and it is believed their

higher cutaneous melanin levels act as a preventative against developing the disease.

One of the notions of melanin theory is that white people are "mutants", that white skin is an aberration, a form of

albinism. Melanin theorist Wade Nobles takes this notion even further, stating that only Black people are fully

human because of their higher levels of skin melanin:

That in the evolution of the species, in what some people call the Ontogenetic evolution of humankind,

that in the evolution of the species the human family separated in a sense that one branch of the family

stopped its evolutionary path and simply depended upon the central nervous system as the total

machinery for understanding reality. Whereas, the root of the family continued its path and not only

evolved a central nervous system but developed what I called at that time an essential melanic system.

And that I even went so far as to try to develop a little formula and suggested that CNS + EMS = HB.

CNS (Central Nervous System) + EMS (Essential Melanic System) = HB (Human Being). That the

central nervous system combined with the essential melanic system is what makes you human. That, in

fact, to be human is to be Black. To be human is to be Black. (Nobles 1989).

Others, such as psychiatrist and writer Frances Cress Welsing, express the same idea by their use of the term

"hue-man" instead of "human,". Welsing is the author of "The Cress Theory of Color Confrontation" and "The Isis

Papers: The Keys to the Colors", which in part ascribes certain purported, inherent and behavioral differences

between black and white people to a "melanin deficiency" in white people:

On both St. Valentine's Day and Mother's Day, the white male gives gifts of chocolate candy with

nuts…. If his sweetheart ingests "chocolate with nuts," the white male can fantasize that he is genetically

equal to the Black male…. Is it not also curious that when white males are young and vigorous, they

attempt to master the large brown balls, but as they become older and wiser, they psychologically resign

Melanin theory 2

themselves to their inability to master the large brown balls? Their focus then shifts masochistically to

hitting the tiny white golf balls in disgust and resignation - in full final realization of white genetic


Welsing also posits that, because it is so easy for whiteness to be lost genetically during interracial breeding,

light-skinned peoples developed an aggressive colonial urge, and their societies militaristically dominated others in

order to preserve this light-skinned purity.

Melanin theorist Carol Barnes writes in his book Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness:

Melanin is responsible for the existence of civilization, philosophy, religion, truth, justice, and

righteousness. Individuals (whites) containing low levels of Melanin will behave in a barbaric manner.

Melanin gives humans the ability to FEEL because it is the absorber of all frequencies of energy. Since

whites have the least amount of Melanin, this is why they are perceived by People of Color as generally

being rigid, unfeeling (heartless), cold, calculating, mental, and "unspiritual."

This hypothesis is supported by black academic Leonard Jeffries, who was dismissed in 1992 from his post as

chairman of the Harlem's City College Black Studies department for having allegedly made antisemitic statements.

Jeffries claims that the pigment melanin is the source of intelligence and creativity. He divides humanity into African

"sun people" and European "ice people," the latter being not only melanin-deficient but born cold and greedy,

militaristic, authoritarian, and possessed of a host of other racially determined defects.



Welsing also claims that the prevalence of high blood pressure among African Americans is due to the fact that

melanin exchanges "black photons" with other electrons and, therefore, picks up the negative energy vibrations from white people.

In fact, higher rates of hypertension among Blacks are linked to norepinephrine, a substance that the body produces

under stress and which constricts blood vessels. Norepinephrine also is associated with melanin. Recent studies by

Roger Allen at the University of Maryland show that, after being subjected to stress, Blacks exhibit elevated blood

pressure at least ten times as long as do Whites.

Drug addiction

Barnes has charged that white scientists deliberately created drugs, such as cocaine, structured to bind chemically

with melanin. Barnes claims that melanin and cocaine have a high affinity for each other because both are alkaloids,

and that Black people get addicted faster, stay addicted longer, can test positive for cocaine even a year after its most

recent use, and suffer more from these drugs because cocaine co-polymerizes into melanin. Yet, melanin is not an

alkaloid, and there is no evidence that melanin co-polymerizes with cocaine in vivo.

Despite such apparent discrepancies, and while there is no evidence of a White conspiracy to compound addictive

substances in order to target Blacks, there is an established link between one aspect of melanin-related biology and

drug and alcohol addiction. The evidence is that melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) binds chemically to

receptors in the brain to amplify addiction response. A 2008 study of cocaine addiction in rats conducted by

researchers at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine found:

Drug addiction is mediated by complex neuronal processes that converge on the shell of the nucleus

accumbens (NAcSh). The NAcSh receives inputs from the lateral hypothalamus (LH), where

self-stimulation can be induced. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is produced mainly in the LH,

and its receptor (MCH1R) is highly expressed in the NAcSh. We found that, in the NAcSh, MCH1R is

coexpressed with dopamine receptors (D1R and D2R), and that MCH increases spike firing when both

D1R and D2R are activated. Also, injecting MCH potentiates cocaine-induced hyperactivity in mice.

Mice lacking MCH1R exhibit decreased cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, as well as

Melanin theory 3

cocaine sensitization.

Additionally, researchers in the journal Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior concluded that, while the

mechanism for nicotine addiction is not fully understood, melanin has a "biochemical affinity for nicotine," and that

the "greater the amount of melanin people have, the harder it could be for them to quit smoking." Other evidence

indicates that "even though African Americans smoke fewer cigarettes than some other groups, they have a higher

intake of nicotine from each cigarette."

The tobacco industry has been criticized by civil rights and health advocacy organizations for "aggressive"

advertising and promotional campaigns targeting African-Americans, but there is no evidence of formulation of

cigarettes in order to target Blacks for addiction and lung disease. Furthermore, research also indicates that people

with darker skin as a result of suntanning, regardless of inherited skin color, also have an increased risk of nicotine

addiction. People "with the darkest skin tended to smoke the largest number of cigarettes."

Elements of the alcoholic beverage industry have a similar record of targeting the African-American community.

Recently, members of the Detroit City Council raised objections to an inner-city ad campaign for Colt 45 malt

liquor, some complaining that the ads were "racist."

Mainstream opinion

Scientists consider melanin theory pseudoscience; it has no credibility in mainstream medicine or science.

In 2006, the views of adherents and critics of melanin theory were dramatized in Cassandra Medley's play,





[1] http:/ / smithsonianchips. si. edu/ proctor/ index. htm

[2] " Melanin (http:/ / www. sankofa. ch/ texts/ Melanin. htm)" in MAD Writer Productions. undated.

[3] Suzar. " Your Brain & Nerves Cannot Operate Without Black Melanin! (http:/ / suzar. com/ BOTW/ BOTW-ch5a-pages53-54.

html#anchor2750657)" undated.

[4] Suzar. " Other Astounding Properties of Melanin (http:/ / suzar. com/ BOTW/ BOTW-ch5b-pages55-56. html)" undated.

[5] Ortiz De Montellano, Bernard. " Magic Melanin: Spreading Scientific Illiteracy Among Minorities (http:/ / www. csicop. org/ si/ show/

magic_melanin_spreading_scientific_illiteracy_among_minorities)". Skeptical Inquirer. Spring 1992.

[6] "Epidemiologic Studies of Parkinson's Disease: II. A Hospital-based Survey," Kessler Am. J. Epidemiol..1972; 95: 308-318.

[7] Frances, Cress Welsing (1990). The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors. Third World Press. ISBN 0-88378-104-2.

[8] Carol, Barnes (2001). Melanin: The Chemical Key to Black Greatness, Vol. 1. Lushena Books. ISBN 1-930097-35-2.

[9] " Jeffries Sues CUNY for Reinstatement (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.

html?res=9E0CE5D6113BF934A35755C0A964958260& n=Top/ Reference/ Times Topics/ Subjects/ A/ Anti-Semitism)". The New York

Times. 7 June 1992.

[10] " Liberal Prof Who Calls Jews 'A Race of Skunks (http:/ / radio-talk. techieonepage. com/

Liberal-Prof-Who-Calls-Jews-A-Race-of-Skunks-758529. html)". Radio Talk. 18 July 2005.

[11] Peyser, Andrea. " Spewing Racism on the City Dime (http:/ / www. nypost. com/ commentary/

spewing_racism_on_the_city_dime_commentary_andrea_peyser. htm)". The New York Post.

Melanin theory 4

[12] "Blacks, Hypertension and Melanin," Health. The Washington Post, Oct. 14, 1991.

[13] Elizabeth A. Duncan, Therese R. Rider, Ronald J. Jandacek, Deborah J. Clegg, Stephen C. Benoit, Patrick Tso and Stephen C. Woods. "The

regulation of alcohol intake by melanin-concentrating hormone in rats." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, Vol. 85, Issue 4,

December 2006, Pages 728-735.

[14] Shinjae Chung, F. Woodward Hopf, Hiroshi Nagasaki, Chun-Ying Li, James D. Belluzzi, Antonello Bonci, and Olivier Civelli. "The

melanin-concentrating hormone system modulates cocaine reward." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 2009, 106:6772-6777

[15] Vedantam, Shankar. "Skin Color Linked to Smoking Risk," Science Digest, The Washington Post, Monday, May 11, 2009, p. A5.

[16] "Skin Color Clue to Nicotine Dependence, (http:/ / www. sciencedaily. com/ releases/ 2009/ 05/ 090508134951. htm)" Science Daily,

05-10-2009. Accessed 06-18-2009

[17] "Tobacco Industry's Targeting of Youth, Minorities and Women American Heart Association website, June 18, 2009, accessed 06-17-09

(http:/ / www. americanheart. org/ presenter. jhtml?identifier=11226,)"

[18] Josar, David. "Alcohol Ads Anger City Council," The Detroit News (http:/ / www. detnews. com/ article/ 20090708/ METRO/ 907080349/

1410/ METRO01/ Alcohol-ads-anger-City-Council). Accessed 07-09-09.

[19] Skeptinq, Ortiz de Montellano, B. R. 1993. "Afrocentricity, Melanin, and Pseudoscience," Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 36, 33-58

[20] Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. (17 Dec 2006). "Afrocentric Pseudoscience: The Miseducation of African Americans" (http:/ / www3.

interscience. wiley. com/ journal/ 119242630/ abstract?CRETRY=1& SRETRY=0). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (New York

Academy of Sciences) 775: 561-572. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb23174.x. .

[21] Neil Genzlinger, "Science and Race Issues Clash in Cassandra Medley's 'Relativity'", The New York Times, May 2, 2006 (http:/ / theater2.

nytimes. com/ 2006/ 05/ 05/ theater/ reviews/ 05rela. html)

Article Sources and Contributors 5

[22] www.mihan-tec.mihanblog.com


Article Sources and Contributors

Melanin theory Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=398759631 Contributors: 2over0, A3RO, Alansohn, Anseoasresere, Aunt Entropy, BullRangifer, Deeceevoice, Dom Kaos,

Fawal24, FeloniousMonk, Flying hazard, Fordsfords, Headbomb, Jmundo, Kay Dekker, Kintetsubuffalo, Memory hunter, Paul Barlow, Pietrow, Pstanton, Random user 39849958, Snafflekid,

Steven J. Anderson, Stillwaterising, The Thing That Should Not Be, TheAsocialApe, Truthlobby, Tyciol, Verbal, WLU, 40 anonymous edits


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported

http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/